Sunday, March 10, 2019

Eight Stages of Development

This paper bequeath present an overview of the developmental tasks manifold in the social and emotional development of children and teen climb onrs which continues into adulthood. The presentation is based on the Eight Stages of Development developed by psychiatrist, Erik Erikson in 1956. According to Erickson, existence move through eighter arcdegrees of psychosocial development during our lives. Each map centers slightly a specific crisis or conflict between competing tendencies.Eriksons theory consists of eight acts of development. Each stage is characterized by a different conflict that moldiness be resolved by the individual. When the environment makes new demands on people, the conflicts arise. The some integrity is faced with a choice between 2 ways of heading with each crisis, an adaptive or maladaptive way. Only when each crisis is resolved, which involves qualifying in the mortalality does the person direct sufficient strength to claim with the next stages of development(Schultz and Schultz, 1987).If a person is un fit to resolve a conflict at a picky stage, they will confront and seek with it subsequently in demeanor. nurture Basic Trust Versus Basic mistrust (Hope) Chronologically, this is the period of infancy through the first one or two years of life. The child, well handled, nurtured, and loved, develops trust and security and a basic optimism (Stevens, 1983). sternly handled, a child becomes insecure and mistrustful. Learning Autonomy Versus Shame (Will) The sulfur psychosocial crisis, Erikson believes, occurs during early childhood, probably between approximately 18 months or 2 years and 3? o 4 years of age. According to Erikson, egotism control and self confidence begin to develop at this stage (Stevens, 1983). Children canister do more than on their own. Toilet training is the roughly important event at this stage. They in like manner begin to feed and plume themselves. This is how the toddler strives for auton omy. It is essential for pargonnts not to be overprotective at this stage (Stevens, 1983). A p arnts level of protectiveness will influence the childs ability to achieve autonomy. If a parent is not reinforcing, the child will feel shameful and will learn to head his or her abilities. Erikson believes that children who experience too much doubt at this stage will lack confidence in their powers later in life(Woolfolk, 1987). Learning Initiative Versus Guilt (Purpose) Erikson believes that this third psychosocial crisis occurs during what he calls the play age, or the later preschool years (from about 3? to, in the United States culture, entry into formal school). The development of courage and independence are what set preschoolers, ages three to six years of age, apart from other age congregations.Young children in this category face the challenge of initiative versus guilt. As exposit in Bee and Boyd (2004), the child during this stage faces the complexities of planning and dev eloping a wiz of judgment. During this stage, the child learns to take initiative and prepare for leadership and goal motion roles. Activities sought out by a child in this stage may include risk-taking behaviors, such as crossing a passageway alone or riding a bike without a helmet both these examples involve self-limits.These behaviors are a result of the child developing a sentience of frustration for not macrocosm able to achieve a goal as planned and may engage in behaviors that come out aggressive, ruthless, and overly assertive to parents (Marcia, 1966). Aggressive behaviors, such as throwing objects, hitting, or yelling, are examples of observable behaviors during this stage. Industry Versus Inferiority (Competence) Erikson believes that the fourth psychosocial crisis is handled, for better or worse, during what he calls the school age, approximately likely up to and possibly including some of jr. high school (Erickson, 1950). Children at this age are becoming more a ware of themselves as individuals. They work hard at being responsible, being good and doing it right. They are now more reasonable to share and cooperate. (Gross, 1987). Allen and Marotz (2003) also list some cognitive developmental traits specific for this age group Children understand the concepts of space and time, gain better understanding of cause and order and understand calendar time. At this stage, children are eagre to learn and live up to more complex skills reading, writing, telling time.They also get to form good values, recognize cultural and individual differences and are able to manage most(prenominal) of their personal needs and grooming with minimal assistance (Allen and Marotz, 2003). At this stage, children top executive express their independence by being disobedient, using back call agglomerate and being rebellious. Learning Identity Versus Identity Diffusion (Fidelity) During the fifth psychosocial crisis (adolescence, from about 13 or 14 to about 2 0) the child, now an teen, learns how to answer satisfactorily and happily the question of Who am I? But even the most adjusted of adolescents experiences some role identity element diffusion most boys and probably most girls experiment with minor delinquency, rebellion, self doubts bombardment the adolescent (Kail and Cavanaugh, 2004). Erikson is credited with coining the term Identity Crisis(Gross, 1987). Each stage that came in advance and that follows has its own crisis, entirely even more so now, for this marks the novelty from childhood to adulthood. This passage is necessary because Throughout infancy and childhood, a person forms many identifications.But the need for identity in youth is not met by these (Wright, 1982). This turning point in human development seems to be the satisfaction between the person one has come to be and the person society expects one to become. This emerging sense of self will be constituted by merging past experiences with expectation of the future. In relation to the eight life stages as a whole, the fifth stage corresponds to the crossroads Adolescents are confronted by the need to re-establish boundaries for themselves and to do this in the face of an often potentially belligerent world (Gross, 1987). This is often challenging since commitments are being asked for before particular identity roles brook formed. At this point, one is in a subject of identity confusion, but society normally makes allowances for youth to find themselves, and this subject is called the moratorium As in other stages, bio-psycho-social forces are at work. No calculate how one has been raised, ones personal ideologies are now elect for oneself (Wright, 1982). Oftentimes, this leads to conflict with adults over religious and political orientations.Another area where teenagers are decision making for themselves is their career choice, and oftentimes parents want to have a decisive put in that role. If society is too insistent, the t eenager will agree to impertinent wishes, forcing him or her to stop experimentation and finding true self-discovery. Once soulfulness settles on a worldview and vocation, will he or she be able to incorporate this aspect of self-definition into a diverse society? According to Erikson, when an adolescent has balanced both perspectives of What have I got? and What am I difference to do with it? he or she has established their identity (Gross, 1987) Learning minginess Versus Isolation (Love) The Intimacy vs. Isolation conflict is emphasized around the ages of 20 to 34. At the start of this stage, identity vs. role confusion is coming to an end, and it lull lingers at the foundation of the stage (Erikson, 1950). Young adults are still eager to blend their identities with friends. They want to fit in. Erikson believes we are sometimes withdrawd repayable to intimacy. We are afraid of rejections such as being turned down or our partners breaking up with us.We are familiar with pa in, and to some of us, rejection is annoying our egos cannot bear the pain. Erikson also argues that Intimacy has a counterpart Distantiation the readiness to isolate and if necessary, to destroy those forces and people whose essence seems dangerous to our own, and whose territory seems to encroach on the extent of ones intimate relations (Erickson, 1950). Once people have established their identities, they are ready to make long-term commitments to others. They become capable of forming intimate, shared relationships and willingly make the sacrifices and compromises that such relationships require.If people cannot form these intimate relationships perhaps because of their own needs a sense of isolation may result. Learning Generativity Versus Self-Absorption (Care) In adulthood, the psychosocial crisis demands generativity, both in the sense of marriage and parenthood, and in the sense of working productively and creatively. Integrity Versus Despair (Wisdom) If the other seven psychosocial crisis have been successfully resolved, the mature adult develops the peak of adjustment integrity (Marcia, 1966). He trusts, he is independent and dares the new.He works hard, has found a well outlined role in life, and has developed a self-concept with which he is happy. He can be intimate without strain, guilt, regret, or lack of realism and he is soaring of what he creates his children, his work, or his hobbies (Marcia, 1966). If one or more of the earlier psychosocial crises have not been resolved, he may view himself and his life with disgust and despair. coda These eight stages of man, or the psychosocial crises, are likely and insightful descriptions of how personality develops but at present they are descriptions only.We possess at best elementary and tentative knowledge of just what sort of environment will result, for example, in traits of trust versus distrust, or clear personal identity versus diffusion. Socialization, then is a learning teaching proc ess that, when successful, results in the human organisms moving from its baby give tongue to of helpless but total self-absorption to its ideal adult state of sensible conformity coupled with independent creativity.References Bee, Helen and Boyd, Denise. (2004). The Developing Child. (10th ed. ). Boston Pearson Erikson, E. H. (1950). childishness and society. New York Norton (1950) Triad/Paladin (1977), Erikson, E. , (1956), The Problem of swelled head Identity, Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association 4 Gross, F. L. (1987). Introducing Erik Erikson An invitation to his thinking. Lanham, MD University Press of America. Kail, R. V. , amp Cavanaugh, J. C. (2004). gentle development A life-span view. Belmont, CA Thomson/Wadsworth. Marcia, J. E. , (1966), Development and validation of ego identity status, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 3 PSY 345 Lecture Notes Ego Psychologists, Erik Erikson, http//www. psychology. sunysb. du/ewaters/345/2007_erikson/2006_eri kson. pdf, retrieved 2010-11-11 Stevens, Richard. (1983). Erik Erikson, An Introduction. New York St. Martins Press. Schultz D. P. & Schultz S. E. (1987). A History of Modern Psychology. Orlando, FL Harcourt-Brace. The Theoretical butt for the Life Model-Research And Resources On Human Development, http//www. lifemodel. org/download/ModelBuildingAppendix. pdf, retrieved 2010-11-11 Woolfolk, A. E. (1987). Educational Psychology, (3rded. ). New island of Jersey Simon and Schuster. Wright, J. Eugene (1982). Erikson Identity & Religion. New York The Seabury Press

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