Saturday, March 9, 2019
A paper about Apollo 13 Essay
On April 11, 1970, tercet workforce were scheduled to vaporize to and land on the moon. The flush labeled Apollo 13. Alan Shepard, Stuart Roosa, and Edgar Mitchell made-up the original clump sections of Apollo 13, just now because of an inner-ear surgery, Alan Shepard felt unprepared to fly Apollo13. Jim Lovell, the commander of Apollo 14, was then approached and asked if he would mind switching flights with Shepard. Jim did not theorize in that location would be a great difference between the ii flights and wanted to kick in grow abide to the moon. He agreed and his cluster began training. (Lovell and Kluger, 60-61) Jims crew include Fred Haise, mountain Mattingly, and himself.They gladly accepted their mission. Little did these men shake, however, their flight was going to be riddled with problems and be forever remembered for them. The ternion men should view as know that their mission was fated for mishaps when at the last minute awareness Mattingly was re move from the crew because of an accidental exposure to German morbilli. He was replaced by the man-about-t birth varlet Swigert. cakehole, who was not taken very in earnest by the public, became a long asset to the crew of Apollo 13.The chosen men of Apollo 13 were to extend the second group of men launched towards the moon. Their mission was clear Get to the moon. Apollo 13 think to land in the Fra Mauro Formation, an extensive geologic unit covering large portions of the moon. The men were to exit the gloweringicecraft and perform numerous experiments for NASA. These experiments would show information on the composition of the moons surface and its formation. bestride dating would jerk off hold of been d unity when the samples harvest-homeed to earth. This shows the age of the formations and provides an cerebration of where the moon waterf both on the geologic time scale. (Godwin, 63) ken Mattingly, Jim Lovell, and Fred Haise were ready for their mission. This is what they had trained their upstanding lives for.Devastatingly, Ken Mattingly was not allowed to fly with the crew of Apollo 13 to the moon. Seventy- cardinal hours ahead the flight launched into space, NASA informed Ken that he had been exposed to the German measles and would not be able to continue with the mission. (JSC) The integral crew including the adventure-up crew was exposed to the infirmity. Back-up LEM pilot, Charlie Duke, became sick after being exposed to the disease because of his son.Even though the entire crew, including the back-up crew had been exposed, Ken Mattingly had not been immunize and would endanger the flight if he were to become sick while in space. (Lovell and Kluger, 88) NASA has strict rules about such things and knew that a sick crew member could not be trusted arrestly as an operator of a spacecraft. Kens crew rallied behind him and fought NASA so that Ken could merge them on this mission.Unfortunately, NASA disregarded the crews arguments. Jim Lovell became Mattinglys number virtuoso supporter, however. He wanted his friend with him and did not understand why Ken could not go into space. He asked the flight operating surgeon, How long is the incubation dot for this thing? The surgeon replied, About ten days to deuce weeks? subsequently more discussion about the fact that during lift- despatch Ken would be mulct and when they reached the moon Ken would be healthy, Lovell asked, Then whats the problem? If he starts running a fever when Fred and I are slash on the surface (of the moon), he can have that whole time to get over it. If hes not better by then, he can tho sweat if out on the flight home. I cant think of a better place to have the measles than in a nice cozy spaceship. (Lovell and Kluger, 89) When Lovell finished ranting, the surgeon still bumped Mattingly from the flight. diddly Swigert replaced Ken for the April 11th launch.Jack Swigert took the place of Ken Mattingly as ensure Module pilot. Jack had a reputation as a rambunctious bachelor and had an energetic social life. The public knew of his fashion and during the flight, instead of watching late-breaking news, they watched talk shows that belittled him for such behavior. On April 13th, two days after the launch, ABC was showing The Dick Cavett Show. Dick had one comment about the space flight. He said, And s crowning of girl watching, did you know our first bachelor astronaut is on his way to the moon? Its Swigert, right? Hes the kind of guy who they say has a girl in every port. Well, that may be, hardly I think hes kinda foolishly optimistic taking silk stocking and Hershey bars to the moon (Lovell and Kluger, 4). America knew him as the bachelor. Swigert, however, was quiet, unassuming, and hard-working. The solely astronaut divorced in NASAs history, Swigert knew this was bad for his image in the 1960s, yet NASA unplowed him on because he was such a good pilot.Swigert and NASA knew that he was a good pilot, merel y his lifestyle not his qualifications had been publicized for the public to pronounce him by. Swigert served in the Air Force after graduating from the University of carbon monoxide. During this time he was a fighter pilot in both Japan and Korea. After earning a Masters of Science from the Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1965, Swigert was selected by NASA in 1966 along with Ken Mattingly, Fred Haise, and nineteen other astronauts. (Godwin) The crew had trained for a good year before the flight was to be launched. During this year, the crew became so close that Lovell and Haise could interpret the nuances and inflections in Mattinglys voice.This would become valuable when Mattingly would only be shouting commands at the two men while they attempt to steer their lander. (Lovell and Kluger, 89-90) So it wasnt that the crew of Apollo 13 did not turn over in Swigerts abilities, but they had trained with Ken Mattingly for so many another(prenominal) months that they were afraid they would not be as successful. To their ramp, Swigert fit into the crew nicely. 48 hours before they were to launch, NASA certified Jack to fly. (Lovell and Kluger, 89-90) With Mattingly left behind in heraldic bearing Control, Apollo 13 launched on April 11, 1970 with full faith it would make it to the moon.NASA launched Apollo 13 from put in Complex 39A at Kennedy Space Center in Florida at 213 p.m. (Godwin, 81) The launch went well. The only problems the crew encountered were with fuel cells and the fact that Swigert had not filed his tax income tax returns yet. The Capcom, Joe Kerwin, asked the guys if they had completed their income tax forms. Swigert replied, How do I apply for an extension? Joe laughed. Joe, it aint too funny. Things happened kinda fast down there and I do need an extension. I may be expense time in another quarantine when we get back, besides the aesculapian one theyre planning for us. After cracking up the entire mission halt, Joe came back on m anifestation, Well see what we can do, Jack (Lovell and Kluger, 92). The crew continued with regular business. Little did they know they would be dealing with often bigger problems than Jacks taxes, but they would also be glad that they had him along.Houston, we have a problem (History Channel). Most people know this sayingwell. Theyve said it when things go wrong in their own lives, but for the cardinal men of Apollo 13 and the world it was the scariest phrase they had ever uttered or heard. Quickly after the ship was launched, a NASA technician discovered higher atmospheric pressure on a helium cooler than there was supposed to be. naught was done. After liftoff, Apollo 13s second engine cut off two minutes early. To make up for this, the astronauts burned the other quadruple engines an additional 34. (Space Exploration History) This resulted in a 1.2 feet per second speed gain. On April 13, 1970 after a television broadcast, the men were sent this message from mission contro l, Wed like you to err, stir up you cryo tanks. In addition err, have a shaft and trunnion, for a look at the comet Bennett if you need it. Jack Swigert did as he was told. (Space Exploration History) This led to his now infamous phrase, Houston, we have a problem (History Channel).Jim Lovell described the flare-up like this, Fred was still in the lunar module. Jack was back in the command module, in the left wing seat, and I was half way in between, in the lower equipment bay, wrestle with TV wires and a camera, watching Fred come on down, when all trinity of us heard a rather large bang just one bang. (Compton) All the men thought that the explosion was a intercommunicate being played by Fred Haise, but they quickly realized something was seriously wrong. Jim continues to describe his feelings by saying, I guess its the kind of elicit to know what the feelings of the crew are when something like this happens.When you first hear this explosion or bangyou dont know what it i s. Weve heard corresponding sounds in the spacecraft before that were for nothingmy concern was increasing all the time. It went from I oppugn what this is going to do to the land to I wonder if we can get back home. (Compton) The bang came from oxygen tank 2. The tank supplied oxygen used in the fuel cells, the primary energy witnesser for Apollo 13. The astronauts were cardinal-seven hours from home with only ten hours of back-up battery major power. The battery power had to be saved for reentry into earths atmosphere. (Compton) With the help of mission control on the ground, the crew of Apollo 13 unionized a plan to get back to earth safely.In 1968, NASA commissioned twenty-one panels to research aspects of theApollo spacecrafts. One of these panels included Jim Lovell and Jack Swigert. Their particular panel was to investigate in-flight fire emergency procedures. (Lovell and Kluger, 31) Jack had even written the procedures for malfunctions in case of such for the Command Module. (CD-ROM) So he and Lovell knew somewhat they way to get them back home safely. They planned to use the Lunar Module to survive. The LM was designed to separate from the Command and Space Module, land two astronauts on the moon, sustain them while they were on the moon, and carry them back to the ship in orbit. (Compton) The Command Module had to be shut down to save the batteries for reentry.Aquarius, the Lunar Module equipped for two men for two days now would have to contain three men for four days. Another problem that arose was the oxygen supply and the move temperature. If the men continued to breathe normally, they would start breathing in their own degree Celsius dioxide. This would kill them after a period of time. The men had to devise a plan to rid the ship of CO2. The next obstacle they had to take over was the temperature. It ended up dropping to thirty-eight degrees in the Command Module. As all this was happening, the crew had to maneuver Apollo 13 around th e moon, not to the moon, and towards earth. at once the crew was headed toward earth, the men in mission control were in complete control of the crews fate. Not only did NASA bring in the normal members of mission control to get the men back safely, but the Apollo 14 crew was there and so was Fred and Jims good blood brother Ken Mattingly. Together they all came up with a way to make an air filter that the crew could use to take away the carbon dioxide. While mission control and the others were hoping to get the men home, Marilyn Lovell and the other wives met at the Lovell home to pray for the crew. Even Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin watched coverage of the tragedy with Marilyn Lovell in her home. (Lovell and Kluger) All of the watchers on were glad when the men finally arrived home safely.The three men trapped in Apollo 13 were on their way home, but first they had to help Fred survive and say goodbye to a friend. two days before the crew was to say goodbye to Aquarius and the service module, Fred Haise came down with a serious fever. His fever was due to a kidney infection he hadacquired from the lack of liquid intake the crew had been facing. During the time that Fred was battling his fever, the astronauts separated from the swear out Module and the Lunar Module, powered up the Command Module, which they would use to return home, and Mission Control said its goodbyes with the famous quote, Farewell, Aquarius, and we thank you. Luckily, the power did return when the crew powered up the Command Module. (Space Exploration History) This had been a disquiet for the men and everyone at home.Two hours before splash down, Fred Haise reached a peak in his sickness. Jim glanced over at him and he had his eyes closed, hugging himself seek to stop from shivering. At this point Lovell wrapped Haise in a huge bear hug to warm him up. The shivering subsided and they all looked forward to the eighty degree weather in the South Pacific. (Lovell and Kluger) After bein g held cloaked in space for eighty-six hours and fifty-seven minutes with no idea if the would ever return home, the crew of Apollo 13 splashed down in the Pacific Ocean. They landed only three miles from the recovery ship, Iwo Jima. (Compton) The landing is the most accurate landing in the history of manned space flight.Apollo 13 wasnt the last flight to the moon, there were four others, but none of the men who had flown with 13 ever went back into space. Ken Mattingly was the next astronaut to Apollo 13 to ever fly. He was part of the Apollo 16 mission. The men of Apollo 13 all retired from NASA shortly after their fated mission. Jim left in 1973 and went on to work in telecommunications. Freds Apollo 19 mission was turned and he left the agency in the late 70s. Jack, the surprise hero of the mission, left the agency immediately after splashdown. He returned to Colorado and entered politics. (Lovell and Kluger, 366-367) In November 1982, he was elected to the U.S House of Repre sentatives. Unfortunately, Jack Swigert died of bone cancer days before he was to be sworn in. For three men who were not supposed to fly to the moon together, the crew of Apollo 13 became approximate than any other flight crew before and showed a bravery never shown by astronauts. They never copped out. When thoughts of poison pills and suicide starting launching their minds, they kept their efforts focused on getting the spacecraft back home. (Lovell and Kluger, 1)They had a pride to up hold. They had the pride of NASA and the United States. All of the menhad been soldiers. Jack Swigert fought in Japan. He knew what it was all about. The mission clearly was to get to the moon, but after the explosion of the oxygen tank the mission became life. It became teamwork. When Fred Haise became ill, the other two crew members made sure they took care of him and brought him home. (Lovell and Kluger) And in return he made sure he got them at the correct angle so that they would not catch on fire or bounce off the earth when reentering the atmosphere. Everyone pulled together in space and on the ground to get these heroes home. They came together like a family in a time of need. For this, they willing always be remembered and looked at as heroes of the United States Space Program. For a mission that was forced to be labeled a failure, Apollo 13 was a great success for humanity and NASA.