Monday, April 1, 2019
Victims of Bullying
dupes of boss aroundVictims of BullyingSchools mountain pass much than educational opportunities they offer umpteen opportunities for mixer interaction for y push donehfulness. These kind opportunities to a fault offer many opportunities for children to become victims of bully. In the last ten years, there has been a dramatic rise of look into on blustery in the coupled States. This look into has been spurred by passd extreme school emphasis where the perpetrators of the violence had been victims of bullying.Bullying encompasses a range of various combative behaviors, which be targeted at an determine victim (Espalage, 2002). It is differentiated from fighting because it involves an imbalance in forte such that the individual targeted has difficulty defending him or herself. Bullying has been a normal obstacle of childhood for many generations (Olweus, 1995). many a(prenominal) people swear that bullying is a natural part of growing up that does non cause seri ous harm but help to toughen children up (Pianta Walsh, 1995). On the other hand, extensive search in this ara has identified consequences for the victims of bulling (Olweus, 1995). in that respect feed been many high profile cases of victims of bullying who build retaliated by horrific school shootings (Kumpulamen, Rasanen, Puura, 2001). A number of recent studies make investigated the immediate and short-term effects of peer victimization (Espelage, 2002 Espelage Swearer, 2003 Nansel, Overpeck, Pilla, Ruan, Simons-Morton, Scheidt, 2001). Rejection from a peer group has been linked to adverse psychological and fleshly consequences (Kumpulamen et al., 2001). Victims harbour been noted to be at luck for increased levels of depression, anxiety, and psychosomatic symptoms (Nansel et al., 2001). School escape and tintings of isolation are common among victims. Furthermore, it has been reported that these victims of bullying are exploitation post-traumatic stress disorder (Kumpulamen et al., 2001). This reveals the detrimental impact that peer rejection may have on young person and the importance of more explore on the long-term impact bullying has on victims.The media has portrayed bullies and nerds or geeks in numerous films, thus bringing awareness of childhood social hierarchies and the desire to be accepted as part of a group. The nerds are social unwanted who are commonly victimized by their peers and often blamed for not universe tough enough. Recent research and pop culture movies akin Mean Girls have brought more attention to girls and their bullying behaviors. at that place is confine research on the prevalence and effects bullying has on girls (Brinson, 2005).Many bullies experience mental health difficulties. One cogitation found that trine of bullies have attention-deficit disorder, 12.5% were suffering from depression, and 12.5% had oppositional-conduct disorder (Kumpulamen et al., 2001). Bullies then in turn back out out th eir frustrations on someone the see as weaker than them. These bullies are also seeking to impress their peers. The rejection felt by the victim can have a direct impact on their lives.Several authors suggest that youth who are continually victimized may be at risk for poorer psychological functioning as braggart(a)s (Espelage, 2002 Nansel et al., 2001). There has not been much research in this particular area. Little is known about how these victims function as adults. research suggest that adolescents do not simply grow out of emotional problems with age, which implies that youth who have poor social skills may continue to experience difficulty in their area of maintaining relationships as adults (Nansel et al., 2001). Espelage (2002) found that many victims of bullying continue to think about their experiences of being bullied and recall frightening memories well into adulthood.Depression and suicidal ideation have been found to be common outcomes of being bullied for both boy s and girls. Bullies themselves have been prone to depression (Espelage, 2002). Bullying behaviors has in like manner been found to transfer from the classroom to the streets, male bullies having been found to be seventeen times more likely to be frequently violent out-of-door of the classroom and female bullies everyplace one hundred times more likely to be frequently violent on the streets (Brinson, 2005). Longitudinal research has found that bullying and aggressive behavior were identified as being characteristics of those students who later became involved in criminal behavior (Nansel et al., 2001).Statement of paradoxThere have been limited mixed-methods studies on the phenomenon of bullying (Espelage Swearer, 2003). There has been no research that has attempted to explore the long term effects of bullying on individuals who have experienced it. This study depart use a mixed-methods approach to explore both the long term effects of bullying on individuals that were bullie d in their youth.Statement of PurposeThe purpose of this concurrent, mixed methods study is to explore and generate themes about the long term effects bullying, that occurred in childhood, has on men and women. The quantitative research questions provide address the prevalence of bullying between male and female participants that they encountered at school when they were in their teens. Qualitative open-ended questions will be used to probe strong resilience factors by exploring aspects of the bullying experiences and how they impacted the persons adult life.Theoretical FrameworkSeveral theories have sought to explain the organism of bullying behavior. Some break offmental theorists perceive bullying as a childs attempt to establish social ascendence over other children. This dominance is established through winmentally appropriate actions in the early years, when children lack complex social skills, they bully using somatic means. As these overt acts are punished by disciplin arians, and as children develop a larger repertoire of literal language, bullying becomes more verbal in nature. Finally, when children gain the skills to understand and participate in intricate social relationships, they begin to use these relationships as a more covert lineament of bullying in order to establish power and social dominance (Smith, 2001).Resilience conjecture is defines as a persons superpower to cope or adapt to stressful situations. In different environments, resilience can have different meanings. In a high nuisance neighborhood, resilience could mean just surviving unscathed from the violence. This is having the ability to cross a challenging set of circumstances with success. Studies in resilience system demonstrate that resilient individuals are those who grow and develop as a result of trauma. Rather than being stunted by life difficulties, they rule from the traumatic events with an increased sense of empathy, enhanced coping skills. (Pianta Walsh, 1998). associate rejection theory provides an important context for socialization that fosters social skills that children learn and use through out their lives. Rejection theory is based on the premise that children that are jilted by their peers are not given the same opportunities to socialize and develop socialization skills. This further distances them from their peers (Cole Gil lens of the eyesen, 1993).Life course perspective is an appropriate lens to use when reviewing bullying and the after effects it has on the victims of it. inquiry has shown that bullying can cause victims to have varying degrees of posttraumatic stress syndrome (Houbre et al., 2006). Elder (1998) researched the social pathways in the life course. This research revealed that individuals lives are influenced by their ever-changing effects of their experiences.Research nouss/ unimportant HypothesisResearch Question 1How are men and women impacted by the bullying they encountered as youth?Null Hypothesi s 1There will be no statistical significant difference in how men and women are impacted by bullying that they encountered as youth as deliberate by the Revised Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire.Research Question 2How did bullying as a youth affect men?Null Hypothesis 2There will be no prove that being bullied in their youth will have an impact on their adult lives as men.Research Question 3How did bullying as a youth affect women?Null Hypothesis 3There will be no evidence that being bullied in their youth will have an impact on their adult lives as women.Research Question 4What are the implications in their current life that they feel resulted from the bullying they encountered as youth?Null Hypothesis 4There will be no statistically significant evidence of implications in their current life that were a result from bullying that they encountered as youth.Research Question 5How do they feel their bullying experiences impacts their ability to socialize with people now?Null Hypothes is 5There will be no evidence that bullying experiences in their past will impact an adults ability to socialize with other people. interpretation of TermsBully/victims individuals who both bully others and are victims of bullying (Espelage Swearer, 2003).Bullying aggressive behavior that occurs repeatedly over time and includes both physical and emotional acts that are directed towards another individual with the intent to bring down harm or uneasiness (Olweus, 1993).Bystander individual who observes a bullying consequent (Olweus, 1993).Emotional Scarring the association of negative feelings with the recollection of painful memories of being bullied (Espelage, 2002).Peer an individual belonging to the same groups based on age, grade, and status (Olweus, 1993).Victim of Bullying an individual who is exposed repeatedly over time to aggressive behavior that is inflicted by his peers with the intent to cause harm or discomfort (Espelage, 2002 Olweus, 1993).AssumptionsThe assumption s made about the participants in this study are that they are of go bad mind to participate in this study.The assumptions made that all of the participants will arrange the web survey honestly.The assumptions made that all of the participants were bullied in their youth.DelimitationsThe research recognizes the pursuit delimitations for the studyThe sample size will be dependent of the numerate of people who respond to the email of inquiry at this study.All respondents are mentally competent to answer the questions in the online survey.The participants have the potential to be spread out across the United States.LimitationsQuantitative research looks for generalizability of the research findings to the larger population (Crestwell, 2005). Generalizability is not as important to qualitative research that is seeking to explore a phenomenon and the impact it has. If more men respond then women to this survey, then it would not be an equally distributed sample. Socio-economic status is not asked in this study.