Wednesday, September 4, 2019
Analysis of the Head Start Program Essay -- Educational Policy, Class
The purpose of this essay is to offer a concise description of the Head Start program, discuss the historical background of the policy, and analyze the economic and political forces that have influenced the development of the program. The essay also seeks to evaluate both the manifest and latent functions of the policy, consider the current debate around Head Start, describe the ideologies and values that have framed the debate around Head Start, and offer recommendations regarding the program. Head Start Program Overview of the Policy The Head Start Program, typically referred to solely as Head Start, is offered by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. The program was inaugurated in 1964 as a means of preparing children from low-income families to enter kindergarten with a higher level of preparation (Gillette, 2010). Head Start is funded through the Head Start Act of 1981, which was reauthorized in 2007. Head Start has a budget of over $7 billion and has its own teachers and aides (Banner, 2011). In fiscal year 2009, the latest year for which data is available from the Administration for Children and Families (2010), the home to the Office of Head Start within the Department of Health and Human Services had an enrollment of 904,153, of which 3% were five-year-olds or older, 51% were four-year-olds, 46% were three-year-olds, and 10% were under three years of age. Children three and under are part of what is known as Early Head Start, an extension of the program that serves the youngest children. The Administration for Children and Families further disclosed that, in fiscal year 2010, 39.9% of children enrolled in Head Start were white, 30% were African-American or Black, and 35.9% were Latino. The sum of the... ...y. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Barnett, W.S. & Hustedt, J.T. (2003). Head StartÃ¢â¬â¢s lasting benefits. Infants and Young Children, 18(1), 16-24. Black, E. & Black, M. (2003). The rise of southern republicans. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Gillette, M.L. (2010). Launching the war on poverty. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. Meyers, M.K. & Gornick, J.C. (2003). Public or private responsibility? Early childhood education and care, inequality, and the welfare state. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 34, 379-411. Mindick, B. (1986). Social engineering in family matters. New York, NY: Praeger. Vinovskis, M.A. (2008). The birth of head start. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press. Wainryb, C., Smetana, J.G., & Turiel. E. (2008). Social development, social inequalities, and social justice. New York, NY: CRC Press.